Upscale Tammybrook, a newish Cresskill, NJ., neighborhood,
offers a pleasing glimpse of modern suburban living: imposing
million-dollar homes, designer landscaping, sweeping vistas
across northern New Jersey. What it fails to offer resident
John McCann is a sidewalk to anywhere.
So instead of hoofing it, the Cresskill councilman drives the
1.1 miles to the post office. That’s after he has dropped his
laundry at a drive-through dry cleaner and motored across town
to deliver his daughter to a play date—after picking her up
from school. Then he’s on to the store. In his car.
What’s wrong with this picture? Quite a lot, according to the
federal government and the state of New Jersey.
Suburban sprawl, with its large lot homes, mega-malls, and
congested traffic, is making a walk to the post office about
as easy as a stroll down the Garden State Parkway. The reliance
on cars instead of shoe leather is causing a chain reaction
of inactivity, obesity, and other chronic health ills, scientists
and planners say.
"Sprawl kills" ought to be the bumper sticker that comes out
of this discussion," Bob Yaro, executive director of the Regional
Plan Association, a New York City research and advocacy group,
said at a recent meeting of state planners in Trenton, NJ.
"Sprawling patterns of development are bad for public health,"
he said. "I want to commend New Jersey for being the first state
in the country to say that."
The New Jersey State Planning Commission, which oversees the
implementation of New Jersey’s plan for development, is serious
enough about the health effects of sprawl that it invited experts
to roll out their evidence showing how urban design affects
"Environmental changes can provide a profound shift in human
behavior," said the featured speaker, Dr. William Dietz, director
of the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity at the U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. smoking rates,
for example, dropped after the practice was banned from workplaces
and public buildings, Dietz told the group.
"I’d love to know how much more energy we used before we had
remote controls for TV," Dietz said, offering an example of
design dictating behavior.
Evidence that sprawl kills is hardly ironclad, but small studies
are beginning to show the link. Newer communities have fewer
sidewalks than older ones, and people walk less when there are
no sidewalks. In communities where people walk less, there is
more obesity. People in newer communities use their cars more
than in older ones. Children are more likely to walk to older
schools, Dietz said.
To take these studies a step further, the CDC is researching
the role of suburban design in the spreading American paunch.
Working with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Rutgers
University, the CDC is attempting to identify the fittest and
the fattest cities in the country. And it is outfitting a thousand
people around Atlanta with devices to measure how active they
“Our working title is ‘Sprawl Makes You Fat,’” said Professor
Reid Ewing of Rutgers, the study’s principal investigator. "We
want to see if people are heavier in sprawling Atlanta than
they are in New York City. We are testing the idea that if you
live in a place where you move naturally as part of your daily
routine, you're probably not going to have as many chronic health
Meanwhile, the New Jersey based Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
is choosing 25 communities across the country to help make them
healthier, said Karen Gerlach, senior program officer. That
could mean fixing sidewalks, building bike paths or nature trails,
or opening schools to the community after hours. Some of those
cities probably will be in New Jersey.
The foundation also hopes to make New Jersey "the most walkable,
bikable state in the country," Gerlach said.
The CDC, in conjunction with the Sierra Club, recently released
a national report titled "Creating a Healthy Environment: The
Impact of the Built Environment on Public Health" The report
tracks the relationship between sprawl and the problems of respiratory
health, pedestrian injuries and deaths, quality of life for
the elderly, and water quality.
Jeff Tittel, director of the New Jersey Sierra Club, said the
state rates among the highest in the nation in the number of
roads and cars per square mile, in ground level ozone from autos,
and in rates of asthma — all potentially related to sprawl.
What prompted the CDC and researchers to begin looking at urban
design? There is, first off, the bloating of America. The CDC
last month released figures showing an alarming 61 percent increase
in the rate of obesity among adults in the past decade and a
49 percent increase in the rate.
More than half of Garden State adults are overweight. Of those,
17 percent are obese, a figure that has doubled in the last
decade. One-third of New Jersey adults never exercise, slightly
more than the national average.
Last year, New Jersey health officials became so concerned
about rising numbers of overweight youngsters with diabetes
that they began advising teachers, and even bus drivers to be
alert for signs of the disease.
Such data are prompting scientists to search for answers. The
data on children and obesity, for example, have drawn a clear
connection between too much television and extra pounds. But
data show that adults are consuming only about 100 more calories
a day than they were 20 years ago. And they are spending just
as much of their leisure time on exercise.
Perhaps, scientists theorize, it is more moderate exercise
that is making the difference—what used to be the 20-minute
walk to the post office or the park. Dietz said just 30 minutes
of moderate walking a day can provide health benefits, although
studies show that trips on foot have dropped by 42 percent in
the last 20 years and fewer children walk to school.
"There are social changes that occur with suburbanization and
sprawl that we need to understand better," said Howard Frumkin,
professor and chairman of environmental and occupational health
at the Rollins School of Health at Emory University.
Not everyone agrees that sprawl equals fat. Stephanie Fein,
president of Weight Watchers New Jersey, said people anywhere
can and do exercise if motivated.
"I don’t think it has as much to do with the physical environment
as just choice," said Fein. "We explain to people that they
don’t need a walking path, a running trail, a bike trail, or
a club. They don't even need a sidewalk. If they have stairs
in their home, they can exercise."
But planners are looking for ways to motivate. They say even
sidewalks or walking paths may not draw walkers if such walks
lead nowhere. Walkways need to be tied to destinations—and that's
where urban planning comes in. An office building or commercial
district situated miles from houses, or even across a busy arterial
road will discourage walking.
New Jersey's state plan, the blueprint for the state's development,
recommends that communities be designed to “promote walking,
bicycling, and active recreation near home, school and work.”
Printed in the December 2001, January 2002 Newsletter